People with mental illness are known to be at increased risk of a range of physical health conditions, at a younger age, and suffer worse outcomes related to these conditions. Comorbidity has been well studied in people with mental illness, and previous studies have found that people with mental illness have a higher number of physical health conditions than the general population.  The challenges of the increased complexity of managing multiple physical health conditions may disproportionally affect those with mental illness, further increasing inequality in health outcomes and increasing both secondary mental health and acute service use.  The concept of multimorbidity represents a shift from a single disease-centric approach to a more patient-centred view. Moving beyond disease pairs or counts of disease and studying the way in which diseases and risk factors cluster within individuals is crucial for improving patient outcomes through better diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare service provision.


Childhood interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and atopic disorders as risk factors for hypomanic symptoms in young adulthood: a longitudinal birth cohort study

J. Hayes, G. Khandaker, J. Anderson, D. Mackay, S. Zammit, G. Lewis, D. Smith, D. Osborn

Psychological Medicine, 2016

Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden

C. Bauer-Staeb, L. Jörgensen, G. Lewis, C. Dalman, D. Osborn, J. Hayes

The lancet. Psychiatry, 2017

Childhood and Parental Asthma, Future Risk of Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Qiong Wu, C. Dalman, H. Karlsson, G. Lewis, D. Osborn, R. Gardner, J. Hayes

Schizophrenia bulletin, 2018

Severe mental illness and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom

M. Iwagami, K. Mansfield, J. Hayes, K. Walters, D. Osborn, L. Smeeth, D. Nitsch, L. Tomlinson

Clinical epidemiology, 2018

Visual Acuity in Late Adolescence and Future Psychosis Risk in a Cohort of 1 Million Men

J. Hayes, S. Picot, D. Osborn, G. Lewis, C. Dalman, A. Lundin

Schizophrenia bulletin, 2018

Diagnosed depression and sociodemographic factors as predictors of mortality in patients with dementia

G. Lewis, N. Werbeloff, J. Hayes, R. Howard, D. Osborn

The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 2018

Weight change over two years in people prescribed olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone in UK primary care: Cohort study in THIN, a UK primary care database

D. Osborn, I. Petersen, Nicholas Beckley, K. Walters, I. Nazareth, J. Hayes

Journal of psychopharmacology, 2018

Trazodone use and risk of dementia: A population-based cohort study

R. Brauer, W. Lau, J. Hayes, Kenneth K C Man, D. Osborn, R. Howard, Joseph Kim, I. Wong

PLoS medicine, 2019

Effects of long-term antipsychotics treatment on body weight: A population-based cohort study

J. C. Bazo-Alvarez, T. Morris, J. Carpenter, J. Hayes, I. Petersen

Journal of psychopharmacology, 2019

Atopic Eczema in Adulthood and Risk of Depression and Anxiety: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Y. Schonmann, K. Mansfield, Joseph F Hayes, K. Abuabara, A. Roberts, L. Smeeth, S. Langan

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice, 2020

Psychotic symptoms and sensory impairment: Findings from the 2014 adult psychiatric morbidity survey

Natalie Shoham, G. Lewis, J. Hayes, S. McManus, R. Kiani, T. Brugha, P. Bebbington, C. Cooper

Schizophrenia Research, 2020

Risk factors for mental illness in adults with atopic eczema or psoriasis: protocol for a systematic review

Elizabeth I Adesanya, Y. Schonmann, Joseph F Hayes, R. Mathur, A. Mulick, L. Rayner, L. Smeeth, Catherine H. Smith, S. Langan, K. Mansfield

BMJ Open, 2020

Associations between psychosis and visual acuity impairment: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Natalie Shoham, Michelle Eskinazi, J. Hayes, G. Lewis, Magnus Theodorsson, C. Cooper

Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2021

Association Between Childhood Visual Acuity and Late Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

Natalie Shoham, J. Hayes, C. Cooper, Magnus Theodorsson, G. Lewis

Schizophrenia bulletin, 2021

Indirect acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health in the UK: a population-based study

K. Mansfield, R. Mathur, J. Tazare, Alasdair D Henderson, A. Mulick, H. Carreira, A. Matthews, P. Bidulka, A. Gayle, H. Forbes, Sarah Cook, A. Wong, H. Strongman, K. Wing, C. Warren-Gash, S. Cadogan, L. Smeeth, J. Hayes, J. Quint, M. Mckee, S. Langan

The Lancet. Digital health, 2021

Impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on use of anti‐dementia medications in 34 European and North American countries

Chengsheng Ju, W. Lau, J. Hayes, D. Osborn, K. Man, E. Chan, I. Wong, Li Wei

Alzheimer's & dementia, 2021

Prevalence and characteristics of antidepressant prescribing in adults with comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis

A. Jeffery, Lucy Maconick, E. Francis, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, J. Hayes

Health sciences review, 2021

Association of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics and Oral Antipsychotics With Disease Relapse, Health Care Use, and Adverse Events Among People With Schizophrenia

Yue Wei, Vincent K. C. Yan, Wei Kang, I. Wong, D. J. Castle, Le Gao, C. Chui, K. Man, J. Hayes, W. Chang, E. Chan

JAMA network open, 2022

Incidence and associations of hospital delirium diagnoses in 85979 people with severe mental illness: a data linkage study.

Yehudit Bauernfreund, N. Launders, G. Favarato, Joseph F Hayes, D. Osborn, E. Sampson

Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 2022

Association between the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and risk of traumatic injuries: a self-controlled case series study.

V. W. W. Ng, Le Gao, E. Chan, Ho Ming Edwin Lee, J. Hayes, D. Osborn, T. Rainer, K. Man, I. C. Wong

Psychological medicine, 2022

Mortality-causing mechanisms and healthcare resource utilisation of treatment-resistant depression: A six-year population-based cohort study

Vivien KY Chan, Edmund CL Cheung, Sandra S. Chan, Martina Knapp, Joseph F Hayes, M. Fan, F. T. Lai, Hao Luo, T. Lum, Rosa SM Wong, Lauren KW Lau, Eric Y. F. Wan, G. Wong, E. Chan, P. Ip, I. Wong, Xia Li

The Lancet regional health. Western Pacific, 2022

Cancer rates and mortality in people with severe mental illness: Further evidence of lack of parity

N. Launders, Laura Scolamiero, D. Osborn, J. Hayes

Schizophrenia Research, 2022

The impact of comorbid severe mental illness and common chronic physical health conditions on hospitalisation: A systematic review and meta-analysis

N. Launders, Kate Dotsikas, L. Marston, Gabriele Price, D. Osborn, Joseph F Hayes

PloS one, 2022

The incidence rate of planned and emergency physical health hospital admissions in people diagnosed with severe mental illness: a cohort study.

N. Launders, Joseph F Hayes, Gabriele Price, L. Marston, D. Osborn

Psychological medicine, 2022

Factors associated with depression, anxiety, and severe mental illness among adults with atopic eczema or psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Elizabeth I Adesanya, Julian Matthewman, Yochai Schonmann, Joseph F Hayes, Alasdair D Henderson, R. Mathur, Amy R Mulick, Catherine H Smith, Sinéad M Langan, K. Mansfield

British Journal of Dermatology, 2022

Polypharmacy and Antidepressant Acceptability in Comorbid Depression and Type 2 Diabetes

Annie Jeffery, C. Bhanu, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, Joseph F Hayes

British Journal of General Practice, 2022

Association between polypharmacy and depression relapse in individuals with comorbid depression and type 2 diabetes: a UK electronic health record study.

Annie Jeffery, C. Bhanu, K. Walters, I. Wong, D. Osborn, Joseph F Hayes

The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science, 2022

Ethnic differences in the indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical monitoring and hospitalisations for non-COVID conditions in England: An observational cohort study using OpenSAFELY

R. Costello, J. Tazare, D. Piehlmaier, E. Herrett, E. Parker, B. Zheng, K. Mansfield, A. D. Henderson, H. Carreira, P. Bidulka, A. Wong, C. Warren-Gash, J. Hayes, J. Quint, B. MacKenna, R. Eggo, S. Katikireddi, L. Tomlinson, S. Langan, R. Mathur, The longitudinal health, The OpenSAFELYcollaborative

medRxiv, 2023